Analogy - Likening one thing to
another for the purpose of example.
Bandwagon appeals -
Appeals in which audiences are urged to support a cause, purchase a product,
engage in certain behavior, or "jump on the bandwagon" because
everybody else is doing so. (Example: A commercial urges children to buy
particular toys because all of the children have one.)
Cause and effect organizational pattern - Expository or persuasive speech arrangement that
begins with the reasons why or circumstances under which something happens
(causes) and then attempts to establish probable consequences or results
Deductive organizational pattern - Speech arrangement that begins with the statement
of the point or points in the introduction, then develops and supports the
points, one by one, in the body of the speech.
Definition - Explains a point, concept, or thing by stating what something means. The
definition may be taken from a dictionary (literal/denotative meaning), may come
from common understanding (connotative meaning), or speakers may create their
Description - Provides details about an object, scene, person, process, etc., to help the
listener create a visual image. The details are often sensory, appealing to
sight, touch, hearing, smell, or taste. A single, overall impression is usually
created. Used to provide supportive/elaborative details for exposition,
persuasion, and narration.
Explanation - Explains and clarifies the nature and purpose of the main points of a speech.
Two effective ways to explain are by definition and analogy.
Expository speech - The purpose of an expository speech is to inform. This can include speeches to
explain, instruct, or demonstrate. It may include the use of narrative or
descriptive elements as support. In an expository speech, main points and
sub-points constitute the main divisions of the basic idea to be developed.
Supporting material gives the message substance. It clarifies, amplifies, and
Frame of reference - Perspective or point-of-view of individuals that serves as a lens through
which they may analyze and interpret media. Life experiences (e.g., gender,
family background, socioeconomic status, education level, political leanings,
career, regional/geographic affiliation, religious affiliation) contribute to
the frame of reference.
Glittering generality appeal - Appeals in which attempts are made to persuade
audiences through faulty generalization. Because there is usually some element
of truth in the generalization, audiences often accept it. A glittering
generalization is based almost entirely upon preconceptions instead of fact, and
is often characterized by provocative (i.e., glittering), general language
designed to hide real issues. (Example: A news report of an abortion clinic
bombing shows film clips from an example of Middle East terrorist attack to
characterize the current event as "another act of terrorism.")
Group norms - Beliefs and values commonly held by group members which provide the basis for
the rules and appropriate behavior for interaction within the group. These norms
can be spoken or unspoken, explicit, or implicit.
Group roles - These are sets of behaviors (roles) a person typically engages in while
participating in a group. The two general categories of group roles are task and
maintenance. Examples of task roles include initiator, information seeker,
information giver, opinion giver, evaluator/critic. Examples of maintenance
roles include encourager, harmonizer, mediator, compromiser.
Impromptu method of speaking - Involves speaking without specific preparation. This method is
used when speakers are called upon without prior notice.
Inductive organizational pattern - Speech arrangement that begins with the details and
an examination of them. A conclusion is drawn from the details, and the
revelation of the point of the speech comes at the end as a climax.
Listening strategies (techniques for effective listening) - These include: concentrate (have an
open attitude and an interest), understand what to listen for (determine the
speaker's purpose, main ideas, support), listen critically (relate the message
to own experience, analyze the message, evaluate the message), and use graphic
organizers (note taking, webbing, charting, etc.) when appropriate.
Manuscript method of speaking - Involves writing out the speech and reading it. This method is
commonplace among heads of state and business officials, for example, when
precise wording is essential and there could be serious consequences for any
word "misspoken." For novice speakers, this method may be the easiest
and safest; training in planned/extemporaneous speaking may be more valuable.
Mass media - Refers to the particular type of medium in which the same message can be
presented simultaneously to multiple audiences in different locations. Examples
include radio, television, Internet, film, video, newspaper.
Mass media appeals - These are techniques used in mass media to persuade listeners or viewers to
develop a particular attitude or to purchase a product or service. Some of the
techniques are ethical; others are questionable and involve fallacious
reasoning. Some mass media appeals may be referred to as propaganda techniques.
Selected examples include bandwagon appeals, testimonial appeals, and glittering
generalization appeals. These techniques may be found in the print medium as
well as in the visual and aural media.
Media - The broad array of channels through which communication occurs. Examples include the
spoken word in a conversation or speech; the written word in a letter or
newspaper; a broadcast message over radio or television; an electronic (e-mail)
Media text - Any example of communication in a medium. A photograph is a text and so is
print on a T-shirt. A campaign button worn on a lapel is just as much a text as
a newspaper editorial. A billboard on the highway is a text and so is a video
clip. The use of the word text is not restricted to the printed word.
Narrative - Relates/narrates/tells a story to stimulate interest, persuade, or explain a
point or concept. The story can be real (from life), fictional (from
literature), or hypothetical (created by the speaker). A narrative can be brief
Non-verbal cues - Purposeful or involuntary communication made with one's body. Examples
include stance, gestures, eye movement, hand and/or arm placement, facial
Persuasive speech - The purpose of a persuasive speech is to gain assent, change attitudes, or
move listeners to action. It may include the use of narrative or descriptive
elements as support. In a persuasive speech, supporting material serves to prove
the main point and sub-points.
Planned (or extemporaneous) method of speaking - Involves speaking from a prepared
outline, but with the speaker choosing the wording and phrasing as she or he is
talking. The message is prepared in advance, with predetermined purpose, main
and sub points, explanation and reasoning, and supporting material.
Extemporaneous speaking, despite the Latin derivation of the term, does not mean
speaking without preparation. Usage has changed the meaning. Speaking without
preparation is termed impromptu.
Problem and solution organizational pattern - An expository or persuasive speech arrangement in
which a problem is examined and a solution is developed and/or advocated.
Recitation or memory method of speaking - Involves writing out a speech in full, committing it to
memory, and delivering it. This method is less common today than during earlier
periods in history.
Social conventions - Customary verbal and non-verbal actions which constitute polite discourse.
Examples include please, thank you, excuse me, may I
Testimonial appeals - Appeals in which audiences are urged to support a cause, purchase a product,
or engage in certain behavior because a celebrity figure is doing so. Audiences
need to consider whether the celebrity figure has qualifications that are
relevant to the persuasive effort. (Example: A sports figure urges viewers to
purchase a particular cereal because he/she eats it.)